Disease Education & Prevention in Butterflies


Click here: PDF article on Microsporidia for a PDF article on Microsporidia (Nosema is one).
[Title: Occurrence of Cystosporogenes sp. (Protozoa, Microsporidia) in a multi-species insect production facility and its elimination from a colony of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).]

This article by Dr. Peter Ebling was provided to us through IBBA Advisory Board member Dr. Frank Davis. Dr. Davis says "It is a great article and really fits the need of butterfly rearers as they try to deal with Nosema."

Nosema slides provided by Dr. Frank Davis. Dr. Davis is emeritus professor within the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at MSU.

(Click to enlarge)

Nosema slide provided by Dr. Zachary Huang, Associate Professor at Michigan State University, Department of Entomology.

(Click to enlarge)

The following link to a photo of a Nosema slide for a bee colony was supplied by Edith Smith. http://drone.cyberbee.net/gallery/nosema.

Many Nosema references can be found from a search on Google (www.google.com) or a similar search engine. The vast majority of results relate to Nosema apis, which primarily affects bees, although there are some passing references to infection of butterflies.

This PDF document from the Australian Government Rural Industries R&D Corp. seems to be a reasonable paper on the subject of Nosema apis. While primarily aimed at beekeepers, it does provide some useful information including microscope slides and spore counting ... http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/HBE/05-055.pdf

A few other pages containing pictures of Nosema, although not particularly good ones...

Wikipedia entry on Nosema apis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosema

More info on Nosema disease & prevention coming soon.

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